injection molding biopolymers: how to process renewable resins.
[ Slightly] Illustrations[ Slightly] Illustrations[ Slightly] IllustrationsU. S. When it comes to the processing of new renewable bio-polymers, the injection molding machine is still very green. These bio-derived polymers made of PLA, PHA and starch As materials without any contact become chemicals, the re-sale of headquarters is attracting more and more market interest Based on plastic. These resins need to be careful when forming so as not to exceed their thermal, shear and hydrolysis stability. Material suppliers have been developing new and enhanced grades to improve processing performance and final performance This will help to move materials into a wider range of applications. To overcome processing and performance constraints, additive suppliers have also introduced products. \"We have worked with most of the leading suppliers of biopolymers and have extensively tried out these materials,\" said smichael, technical director at Mass Clinton Nypro. It\'s not as simple as a drop- To replace family materials like PP. \"From materials to materials, there are different requirements for viscosity, shrinkage and risk, but the difference is subtle, so you have to understand the product design, tool design, processing equipment and process parameters. We have accumulated a lot of knowledge about biodegradable and biological materials. We now know more about their drying, gate design and location, runner, flow rate, ventilation and molding. \"Some people say it is very difficult for them to deal with, but this view is beginning to change . \" Jim Trent, North America v. p. Sales and marketing of Tianan bio, China supplier of Tianan bio-polymer (a type of PHA). \"Many biopolymers seem to be difficult to process because they have a small window between the melting point or the processing temperature and the decomposition point. Using biological polymers such as PHBV, the resin can be melted at 310 F, but degraded at 360 F, which is a fairly fine processing window. Too much heat will produce gel, black specs, grass in your area. Therefore, the molds need to observe their melting temperature, screw speed and injection speed --- Due to the ease of moisture absorption and humidity of these materials, proper drying can also be carried out. [ Slightly] Illustrations In this field, more and more imitators are likely to approach this learning curve. Bio-polymers first established their position in the film and sheet extrusion markets, but successful molded parts applications began to provide a market for growth. At present, the molds for biological products are mainly concentrated on rigid packaging, disposable tableware, medical parts and consumer goods. Nypro says it sees an interest in bio-polymer molded parts from the core market in the consumer packaging, electronics, telecom and medical industries. \"We are not trying to push this technology, and users are pushing it,\" McKee said . \". Nypro\'s customers are interested in sustainable development and biodegradable and want to know if these materials are suitable for their products and markets. \"Demand is growing so fast that we expect a double \"In the coming years, the number of bio-polymer products is growing every year,\" McGee said . \". Nypro developed its own proprietary process The simulation package simulates the molding behavior of the bio-polymer, including shrinkage and warping. Consumer goods company Design Ideas has launched its new EcoGen bath product range produced by Tianan PHBV materials, which is made of PolyOne composite into a proprietary grade. Design director Chris Hardy said the design concept has shaped the product in Asia according to the contract. \"EcoGen is our first chance to get into durable, 100% biodegradable Injection Molding Parts,\" he said . \". As shown in the front cover, the products include toothbrush holder, Bath Cup, Bath Box large and small, pump dispenser, soap box and Bath Box. Most of the parts are small and the biggest is the bathtub, which weighs 500g (1. 1 lb). Meanwhile, EcoGen office desktop accessories were launched in 2008. The next development, Hadi said, will be a large part, such as the storage boxes in the kitchen and office. Other injection molding applications for Tianan PHBV include tableware, office trays, toys, rulers, pencil sharpeners, ink cartridges and flower pots. Telles supplier of PHA ( Joint venture Metabolix and ArcherDaniels) Due to the biodegradation of itsMirel resin in water and soil, the company is focusing on agricultural applications. For example, an agricultural stake designed to control turf. Mirel materials are also used in its first aquatic application. Bioverse Inc. In pipe stone, Minnesota. , Is producing a biodegradable aquasoft Pro pond and lake treatment system for the golf course. Mirel can also be used in single rooms Consumer goods, disposable goods and packaging are used. Bob Findlen explained. p. The goal of Telles is rigid applications where the PHA can replace ABS. R & D of hand injection parts- Handheld devices such as mobile phones, handheld computers, printers and other office equipment. There is already a small injection molding transfer tube tray for laboratory use, manufactured by Labcon North America, Petaluma, CA. \" [ Slightly] Illustrations NatureWorks is the first and largest supplier of PLA bio-polymers, and Salvador Ortega, the company\'s market development manager, says various parts are being injection molded, from scrap baskets to cups The PLA can replace GPPS, HIPS and ABS, Ortega said: \"I think it can compete with fashion parts and replace PET and PP in some consumer goods. It shrinks like astyrenic and can use the same type of mold. \"NatureWorks also has customers using its Ingeo resin in injection stretching Blow molding bottles for water and dairy drinks. This increases the potential of the injection molding PLA premix market, which inspires some tooling and equipment companies (see below). \"Molders are using some of our injection molding grades,\" said Thomas Blake . \"p. Americas and global alliance manager, Plantic Technologies, a starch-supplied company in Australia Bio-sensors are built through DuPont Packaging and industrial polymers. \"We are moving our business success in Australia to applications in North America and Europe. We are very interested in this. \"A molder in Australia is producing seedlings and flower pots with Plantic water --Resistance grade. Another water- Resistance levels are also used for injection of mold containers used to capture and kill disease Carrying mosquitoes and their eggs. Now Plantic is exploring applications in meat packaging, such as clips used to separate the internal organs of animals. Injection molding applications for Cereplast Compostable PLA blends include dental products, toys, tools, cutlery, packaging, cups and their own Nat- Your disposable tableware collection Spoon, beverage mixer, sandwichpicks, flying disc, and other items Harco Enterprise Co. , Ltd. Peterborough, Ontario. Teknor Apex Co. Recently, a hot plastic starch license was obtained (TPS) The blended products developed by Cerestech are also targeted at injection molding. \"We expect applications such as supermarkets, containers, electronics, toys and other consumer goods,\" said Edwin Tam, manager of the new strategic plan . \". This license allows Teknor to produce and sell TPS alloys worldwide with pla, PHA, Diester and PP. Teknor plans to launch its first business class at the NPE show in Chicago in June. Understanding their quirks \"The biggest problem in injection molding is heat, moisture and degradation caused by excessive temperature, shear or residence time,\" said Stefano Facco, director of business development at Novamont-basedresins. The processor faces these problems with all the resin to some extent, the title, but there are more problems with the bio-polymer. \"We found that PLA is unique in processing requirements, hot- D-runner systemM-E Co. He said that compared to standard resins such as PS, \"PLA retains more heat and therefore requires a longer cooling time. It tends not to flow in thin walls over long distances. Increasing the filling pressure will only increase the shear, which may cause the shear to break and become brittle. \" D-M- E has just commercialized its ecosystem. Smart standard heat The Chinese People\'s Liberation Army and the new biological Olympic movement system. It uses non-corrosive ingredients to resist the acidity of PLA and the tendency to apply outacid residues on the walls of the molding system. It also features a specially designed nozzle tip to minimize shear and provide high cooling capacity; low-pressure, low-shear channels; And a thermal distribution that can offset the \"temperature sensitivity\" of PLA. Ortega of Natureworks said: \"biological proteins are moisture-absorbing and must be dried, otherwise their molecular weight and melt viscosity will increase and the possibility of flashing and fragile parts will increase. PLA and PHA are polyester and the drying requirements are within the range of PET and tb-i. e. More stringent than ABS, nylon or PC. MarcelDartee, a market development leader in PolyOne biological materials, said: \"moisture sensitivity and non-heat seem to be the biggest problem around unmodified biological polymers . \" PolyOne offers a range of bio-polymers Basic modifiers designed to make up for some of the processing and performance limitations of bio-polymers. Other companies, such as Arkema, colane mother material, DuPont, and romenhaas in France, also offer additivesolutions to solve these problems ( See more boxes). Some biological material processes such as PE or PET, Dartee said. \"After some preliminary adjustments, even inexperienced molder should be able to handle the materials consistently,\" he added . \". Even without proper guidance, he said, \"unlike conventional resins, the melting degradation of these materials is unlikely to block the molding equipment. \"While biological products have their own special requirements in terms of drying and processing conditions, Tom Pitzi, an application development engineer at Telles, said this does not always impose any special requirements on tool design. \"You can use Mirel\'s sub-doors, fan doors, all standard door geometry. \"Bioresin suppliers say their material processes are traditional thermoplastic plastics like PC or ABS, which can be used in general purposepurpose screws. They don\'t recommend high. A large number of shear screws, such as nylon screws, can be produced for shear heating. The supplier also warned that you can\'t have hot spots on the machine. \"The general rule of thumb is to shoot volumes of 30% to 80% barrels, just like standard thermoplastic plastic,\" says Black of Splantic . \". These materials can be run on any type of injection molding machine. The month that WittmannBattenfeld said. 5- Ton Microsystem press is used for special resin molds designed for medical implants. These \"bio- Medical. It is reported that grade materials are not degraded in two processes To minimize the phase quantification and injection system of melting residence time. Injection molding sales manager David Purcell noted that there is a complete stock of molten material for each injection. The minimum gate size of the microsystem is very important for these very expensive medical grades because they are generally not allowed to be re-grinded. It also provides complete integration of feeding, drying, molding and packaging in clean room and dryair conditions. Stefan Bock, technical manager of PET systems applications in Switzerland, said that its PET- The Line presses press has been successfully operated using its standard PET screws. \"Due to the low processing temperature of the bio-polymer, the system must completely clean the PET resin. Its process is closer to PVC but less difficult. Molders should keep the process temperature [+ or -]2[degrees]C,\" says Bock. He noticed the heat- In order to prevent leakage, the runner system may lament that the mold should run with water around 24 °c (75 F) To avoid the plateau. The PLA Pre-forming body, up to 24g, has been formed in PET molds on the printing machine, Bock said. Netduma is not the only one to appreciate the potential of the PLA preview. According to our report, husky developed a 24-in 2008-drop hot- Bottle maker natureworks\'s runner system from the American biological brand(Telluride,Colo. ), and stretch- The bottle blowing machine manufacturer SIG Corpoplast produces the world\'s first packaged water bottle. Husky\'s hot- The HyPet injection molding machine uses runnersystem to make molds for pre-forming, with a mold of 0. Bottle 5L to 1L. [ Slightly] Illustrations Timothy warmer, chief technology officer at Xaloy, said A generation of bio-polymers \"have been processed cleaner these days, so there may be no need for specialized screws. He added: \"Molders may find that these resins are more like engineering plastics than pe, PP or PS. Most bio-polymers are half Crystals, but even if their melting temperature is relatively low, the rate at which they crystallize or solidify in the mold will be relatively slow. Ortega of Natureworks says additives help overcome this limitation: \"Nuclear technology makes it possible to improve cycle time and heat resistance. \"Some sources have accused bio-polymers of sticking to metal surfaces during processing. But the supplier says that when running a high level of amorphous (uncrystallized) Re-processed materials Increasing mold release may help reduce the chance of sticking to a metal surface in a press or tool. Today\'s bio-polymers are designed to be easier to process. \"Many materials are polymer of some form, the main purpose is to increase the operating window of the material, mainly the temperature gap between the crystal and the decomposition,\" said Lunt of SaysTianan . \". The use of polymers also provides an opportunity to enhance or change performance, such as rigidity or melting strength. \"To improve the processing performance, you can now broaden the operating window. Through the window, you can run the product on a more regular device. He warned: \"This does not mean that these materials can be forgiven like PE or PS, nor does it mean that they can run on ancient injection molding machines where some heaters do not work. If exposed to ambient air, these materials can absorb enough moisture in five minutes to beat most of the benefits of drying, \"warned Jamie Jamison, product manager for Conair Group dryers. \"They need to be properly dealt with at all stages to maximize their emotional recovery. If the drying temperature is too high, the material may soften and block in the dry hopper. \"If it\'s too low, it won\'t be so easy to dry,\" Jamison said . \". Users can use streaming, streaming Infrared crystal and drying device. Typical twin- AtWittmann, dryer product manager, warned that the bed desiccant dryer could not maintain the low temperature required for these bio-polymers due to increased temperature. His company has modified the software to accommodate Drymax Eseries dryers with special counter-current airflow and regeneration functions to accommodate the lower temperatures required by the bio-sensor. The updated dryer maintains a dry temperature of 120 degrees Fahrenheit. Wittmann dried abiopolymer with an initial moisture content of 2400 ppm and dropped to 250 ppm in 5 hours, about 158 F, Morneault said. Vitman also recommends that the dry material be delivered to the throat of the injection molding machine in a small capacity to minimize the chance of moisture return. Facco of Novamont said, \"starch- At the end of production, material-based materials must be removed from the barrel through low-density polyethylene to prevent excessive degradation. \"Tell\'pitzi also recommends the use of purgingMirel PHA, and most sources do not recommend leaving the biomes in makassin at the end of the working day. Autodesk\'s Moldflow lab has been working on the processing of bio-polymers to optimize its material simulation software, said Russell Speight, senior manager and chief material engineer at Melbourne labs, Australia. At least eight companies offer or plan to provide bio-polymers for injection. The Ingeo PLA series of Natureworks includes three injection grades, although it is up to date-Ingeo 3251D-- Is a high flow material that will replace the first two Ingeo grades (3001D and 3051D). Ingeo 3251D thin developed by NatureWorks Wall application. Its amelt traffic is from 70 to 85g/cc, 410 F, 30 to 40g/10 min and 374 F. Those with 10-25 g/cc and 10- For the old injection grade, 30g/cc, respectively. It is said that the mechanical performance is basically the same as other grades. It can be formed with the same screws and molds as PS, SAN and ABS, although gate changes need to be made. Ingeo 3251D is transparent for consumer electronics, cosmetic packaging, household items, toys and custom molding. \"Our initial goal was to make semi-durable parts (less than 3-yr life) \"In this case, the process heat requirement does not exceed 370 to 410 F,\" said Ortega of Snatureworks . \". \"We get good optics, high definition, high highlights, high modulus, good toughness and UV transparency without the need for UV stabilizer. The material should be dried below 400 ppmmoisture and the optimum water content is less than 100 ppm. It can be dried with desiccant, infrared and wheels Type dryer for 1-80 C2hr, or 3- 4 hours if the bag is not open. NatureWorks recommends a general. Purpose: Use the compression ratio of 3:1 and the screws of 20:1 L/D to melt the material without the need for additional pressure. Feed- When the recommended melting temperature is 370 to 410 F, the throat temperature should be around 70 F. The screw speed of 100 to 200 shall be used at a back pressure of 50 to 100 psi. The metering area and nozzle shall be between 370 and 400 F. The mold should remain cool, at about 75 F, and the part is expected to shrink by 0. 004 in. /in. Novamont\'s alma materBi starch- The MFI range based on bio-polymers ranges from 6 to 30g/10 minutes and is of an injection-free class. It should be handled with a constant. taper, single- There is a thread of 2. Compression ratio of 5: 1 and L/D of 25:1. Standard Inspection rings can be used, as well as medium and high speed injections, Facco said. The melting temperature is 302to 430 F. Semi-forming Crystalline polymers can be 50% slower than more commonly used semi-Polymers Crystalline resin. The mold temperature of 65 F is typical. Facco of Novamont says the design of any door can be used with materBi. The minimum gate size is usually I mm (full round) However, it can be larger or lower depending on the viscosity of a particular grade. Facco notes that both cold or hot runners are suitable, although \"they have to have no dead corners and free nozzlesflowtype. \"The company also recommends a quick injection. Mater- Stainless steel may be requiredsteel tooling. Molds typically run between 68 and 104 F, and Novamont can perform a Moldflow simulation of mold filling. The company can develop process guidelines and can specify the wall thickness, pressure, gate diameter of the part and the use of hot or cold gates. A biological polymer made of chemically modified high polymer Straight starch industrial corn starch provided by Plantic Technologies, Australia by DuPont at Biomax TPS ( Hot Plastic Starchbrand. General-purpose, high-Water flow and flow Resistance grade, and the \"engineering\" grade of thick parts that require high stiffness. Two water- The resistance grade can withstand water exposure for up to 4 or 12 weeks before biodegradable. Low- Compression screws (2. 2 to 2. 8) Recommended by 20:1 L/D. \"You may use screws of flexible or rigid PVC,\" says Black of Plantic . \". Mirel PHA ( () The resin of Telles is described as high Half performance Crystalline polyester designed for high modulus. They are fermented by corn starch bacteria. The injection molding grade NewP1003 will replace the other two experimental grades (P1001, P1002). \"This is a huge market opportunity for us. \"In durable applications, it is strongly demanded that it be easy to inject,\" says Tell \'pitzi . \". Mirrell should be dried to 1000 ppm (0. 1%)or less. Handling P1003 using reverse barrel- The temperature distribution of the nozzle ranges from 350 fins at the rear to 320 F. \"We are cooling down the melting process we are going through,\" Pitzi said . \". He suggested using ingle- Universal screws with 2:1 to 2. 5:1 compression ratio. The back pressure can be as low as 50 psi. The screw speed should be 50 to 50 rpm. The recommended melting temperature of Mirel is 320 F and is decomposed above 356 F, so it is critical to control the melting temperature. Molders should be injected slowly at the beginning--0. 5 to 2 in. /sec-- Then gradually increase the speed until the mold is filled to 95 to 99%. Injection pressure from 5000 to 13,000 psi has been found to be effective, Pitzi said. To avoid a longer stay, keep no more than three to four pieces of material in the bucket, though two are better. The mold temperature should be 120 to 140 F in order to promote crystalline. \"Instead of injecting into the cold tool at 70 degrees Fahrenheit, injection of the mold at 140 degrees Fahrenheit. If you run it too far away from the melting temperature, you will waste time trying to release the heat. \"Let the material crystallize first and then cool down,\" Pitzi said . \". Telles suggests that the size of the door can reach 80% of the thickness of the part. It takes 3 to 5 tons/square inch for most parts. of clamp force. Telles Pitzi says it has been developing a database with Autodesk Moldflowsimulation software. Mirel can be used with hoist and valve door. Can be cleaned with low density polyethylene. PHBV of Tianan biology ( Poly-dinatevalerate)is abio- Polyester produced by bacterial fermentation of plant starch. The Chinese company is said to be the world\'s largest manufacturer of PHBV, a member of the PHA family. Its Enmat PHBV material is approved for food contact in Europe and approved by the Institute of biodegradable products (BPI), N. Y. C. Used for compost. TianAn provides Enmat y1000p injection grade powder and granules, phbv pelletized by EnMat Y5010P and Ecoflex biodegradable mixture by BASF (but not bio-based)resin. Compounder PolyOne develops the injection grade based on the Tianan material mixed with the biodegradable additive. PHBV should dry to 250 ppm moisture. Tian \'an recommends a melting temperature of 338 to 347 degrees Fahrenheit. The user shall keep the temperature of the feeding throat at no more than 275 F, the compression part at 293 F, the metering part at 311 F, and the adapter temperature at 322 F. Tian \'an said that the contraction of itsPHVB is similar to that of PLA. Cereplast provides a compostable production line consisting of a PLA mixture and a starch \"hybrid\" line that is re-mixed with PP. Provides standard and high traffic (35 MFR) Configurable injection grades, as well as injection grades recommended for tableware, plates and bowls, and higher injection grades for refrigerator applications. The treatment proposal for the new Compostable 1001 level is shown in the attached table. Teknor Apex says its TPS/PP mixture can be run in a standard injection molding machine without screw modification. Recommended special price for Cereplast Its Starch/PP hybrid croissant screw. Melttemeratures Cereplast is recommended to be below 392 degrees F. Teknor says its new mixture can be made at a temperature of 400 degrees Fahrenheit. Tam suggests Slow Ahead Large stage injection Diameter nozzle with cold section plug hole and full hole and ventilation mold Not half, but round. round runners. For more information about these companies and their products, please contact the supplier, visitwww. ptonline. BASF Company/supplier 800 BC resin, Froham Park, New Jerseyplasticsportal. Com, Hawthorne, CA (United States (310)676-5000 * www. cereplast. Cerestech, Montreal, QC (514)893-2089 * www. cerestech. Ca Clarlant additive masterbatch, Winchester, VA (540)6651865 * www. clariant. masterbatches. Connal, Cranberry Township, PA (724)584 5500 * www. conairgroup. com D-M-E Co. , Madison Heights, MI (800)626-6653 * www. dme. DuPont Packaging and industrial polymer network, Wilmington, OE (800)628-6208. www. DuPont Packaging Husky Injection Molding System Co. , Ltd. , Bolton, ON (905)951-5000 * www. husky. Ca NatureWorks LLC, Minnetonka, MN (952)742-0400 * www. natureworksllc. Network Machinery Co. , Ltd. , Denvers, MA (978)772-5100 * www. netstal. com Novamont N. A. Ridgefleld, CT (203)438-5904 * www. materbi. Kangpai Technology Co. , Ltd. , Andover, MA (978)269-4933 * www. plantic. PolyOne, USA Oh, Lake Avon. 440)930-1000 * www. polyone. Tecno vertex company Portaki, RI (401)725-8000 * www. teknorapex. Com Telles, Lowell, MA (978)513-1800 * www. mirelplastics. TianAn Biological Materials Co. , Ltd. , Wayzata, MN (952)476-2987 * www. tianan-enmat. Wittman company And mighty Hattenfeld, Inc. , Torringten, CT (860)482 8009 * www. wittmann-ct. Group, VA (540)980-7560 * www. xaloy. Visit www online for more information. ptonline. Com/article/200904fa1.